Long Covid

Covid-19 discussion, bring your own statistics
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shpalman
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Re: Long Covid

Post by shpalman » Wed Aug 04, 2021 1:00 pm

hakwright wrote:
Wed Aug 04, 2021 12:06 pm
I didn't see this reported previously in this discussion. SAGE publication indicates risk of long Covid is halved by double vaccination.
People who have received two doses of a coronavirus vaccine are 50 percent less likely to suffer from long COVID, a UK scientific advisory body has said.
Long COVID includes lingering symptoms such as fatigue, chest pain and problems with concentration.
The Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE) said UK government statistics found that “in all age groups the odds of experiencing symptoms for more than 28 days after post-vaccination infection was approximately halved by two vaccinations.
https://www.arabnews.com/node/1903246/world
That's from a short report off a long covid.pdf by the way.
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Re: Long Covid

Post by hakwright » Thu Aug 05, 2021 12:41 pm

shpalman wrote:
Wed Aug 04, 2021 1:00 pm
hakwright wrote:
Wed Aug 04, 2021 12:06 pm
I didn't see this reported previously in this discussion. SAGE publication indicates risk of long Covid is halved by double vaccination.
People who have received two doses of a coronavirus vaccine are 50 percent less likely to suffer from long COVID, a UK scientific advisory body has said.
Long COVID includes lingering symptoms such as fatigue, chest pain and problems with concentration.
The Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE) said UK government statistics found that “in all age groups the odds of experiencing symptoms for more than 28 days after post-vaccination infection was approximately halved by two vaccinations.
https://www.arabnews.com/node/1903246/world
That's from a short report off a long covid.pdf by the way.
Thanks - yes, I saw afterwards the "Short Report on Long COVID" link Woodchopper posted, and after some browsing, saw those long covid/vaccination results. Thought it was useful to add the quotes though, since there was previous discussion about whether we know if vaccinations help reduce long covid. We now have some results that firm up our understanding somewhat.

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Re: Long Covid

Post by Herainestold » Mon Aug 09, 2021 3:39 pm

NYT story on long covid in children.
Studies estimate long Covid may affect between 10 percent and 30 percent of adults infected with the coronavirus. Estimates from the handful of studies of children so far range widely. At an April congressional hearing, Dr. Francis Collins, director of the National Institutes of Health, cited one study suggesting that between 11 percent and 15 percent of infected youths might “end up with this long-term consequence, which can be pretty devastating in terms of things like school performance.”

The challenges facing young patients come as pediatric Covid-19 cases rise sharply, driven by the highly contagious Delta variant and the fact that well under half of 12-to-17-year-olds are fully vaccinated and children under 12 are still ineligible for vaccines.

Doctors say even youths with mild or asymptomatic initial infections may experience long Covid: confounding, sometimes debilitating issues that disrupt their schooling, sleep, extracurricular activities and other aspects of life.

“The potential impact is huge,” said Dr. Avindra Nath, chief of infections of the nervous system at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. “I mean, they’re in their formative years. Once you start falling behind, it’s very hard because the kids lose their own self-confidence too. It’s a downward spiral
https://www.nytimes.com/2021/08/08/heal ... PU6YhzUW1o
Vaccination saves lives. Lockdowns stop transmission.We need both to end this pandemic.

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Re: Long Covid

Post by Woodchopper » Tue Aug 10, 2021 6:52 am


Neuro-COVID long-haulers exhibit broad dysfunction in T cell memory generation and responses to vaccination
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101 ... 21261763v1

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Re: Long Covid

Post by Woodchopper » Thu Aug 19, 2021 6:15 pm


Persistent Endotheliopathy in the Pathogenesis of Long COVID Syndrome

Background

Persistent symptoms including breathlessness, fatigue and decreased exercise tolerance have been reported in patients after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. The biological mechanisms underlying this ‘Long COVID’ syndrome remain unknown. However, autopsy studies have highlighted the key roles played by pulmonary endotheliopathy and microvascular immunothrombosis in acute COVID-19. We hypothesized that endothelial cell activation may be sustained in convalescent COVID-19 patients and contribute to Long COVID pathogenesis.

Patients and Methods

Fifty patients were reviewed at a median of 68 days following SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition to clinical workup, acute phase markers, EC activation and NETosis parameters and thrombin generation were assessed.

Results

Thrombin generation assays revealed significantly shorter lag times (p<0.0001, 95% CI -2.57– -1.02min), increased endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) (p=0.04, 95% CI 15–416nM/min) and peak thrombin (p<0.0001, 95% CI 39–93nM) in convalescent COVID-19 patients. These pro-thrombotic changes were independent of ongoing acute phase response or active NETosis. Importantly, EC biomarkers including VWF:Ag, VWF propeptide (VWFpp) and Factor VIII (FVIII:C) were significantly elevated in convalescent COVID-19 compared to controls (p=0.004, 95% CI 0.09–0.57IU/ml; p=0.009, 95% CI 0.06–0.5IU/ml; p=0.04, 95% CI 0.03–0.44IU/ml, respectively). In addition, plasma soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) levels were significantly elevated in convalescent COVID-19 (p=0.02, 95% CI 0.01–2.7ng/ml). Sustained endotheliopathy was more frequent in older, comorbid patients and those requiring hospitalization. Finally, both plasma VWF:Ag and VWFpp levels correlated inversely with 6-minute walk tests.

Conclusions

Collectively, our findings demonstrate that sustained endotheliopathy is common in convalescent COVID-19 and raise the intriguing possibility that this may contribute to Long COVID pathogenesis.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jth.15490


The researchers examined 50 patients with symptoms of Long COVID syndrome to better understand if abnormal blood clotting is involved.

They discovered that clotting markers were significantly elevated in the blood of patients with Long COVID syndrome compared with healthy controls. These clotting markers were higher in patients who required hospitalisation with their initial COVID-19 infection, but they also found that even those who were able to manage their illness at home still had persistently high clotting markers.

The researchers observed that higher clotting was directly related to other symptoms of Long COVID syndrome, such as reduced physical fitness and fatigue. Even though markers of inflammation had all returned to normal levels, this increased clotting potential was still present in Long COVID patients.

“Because clotting markers were elevated while inflammation markers had returned to normal, our results suggest that the clotting system may be involved in the root cause of Long COVID syndrome,” said Dr Helen Fogarty, the study’s lead author, ICAT Fellow and PhD student at the Irish Centre for Vascular Biology in the RCSI School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences.
https://www.rcsi.com/dublin/news-and-ev ... d-syndrome

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Re: Long Covid

Post by jimbob » Wed Sep 01, 2021 9:31 am

https://www.aappublications.org/news/20 ... ren-083121
The risk of myocarditis for children under 16 years is 37 times higher for those infected with COVID-19 than those who haven’t been infected with the virus, according to a new study.

Authors from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said the study provides more evidence that the benefits of the vaccine outweigh a small risk of myocarditis after vaccination.

Researchers analyzed data from more than 900 hospitals and found inpatient visits for myocarditis were 42% higher in 2020 compared to 2019, according to a new Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Among 36 million patients, about 0.01% had myocarditis between March 2020 and February 2021. The median age of people with myocarditis was 54 years, and 59% were male.

About 42% of patients with myocarditis had a history of COVID-19, mostly within the same month. The team determined the risk of myocarditis to be 0.146% among those with COVID-19 and 0.009% among those not diagnosed with COVID-19.
Have you considered stupidity as an explanation

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Re: Long Covid

Post by Woodchopper » Thu Sep 02, 2021 11:38 am

Introduction: We describe post-COVID symptomatology in a national sample of 11-17-year-old children and young people (CYP) with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to test-negative controls.

Methods and analysis: A cohort study of test-positive (n=3,065) and age-, sex- and geographically-matched test-negative CYP (n=3,739) completed detailed questionnaires 3 months post-test.

Results: At PCR-testing, 35.4% of test-positives and 8.3% of test-negatives had any symptoms whilst 30.6% and 6.2%, respectively, had 3+ symptoms. At 3 months post-testing, 66.5% of test-positives and 53.3% of test-negatives had any symptoms, whilst 30.3% and 16.2%, respectively, had 3+ symptoms. Latent class analysis identified two classes, characterised by “few” or “multiple” symptoms. This latter class was more frequent among test-positives, females, older CYP and those with worse pre-test physical and mental health.

Discussion: Test-positive CYP had a similar symptom profile to test-negative CYP but with higher prevalence of single and, particularly, multiple symptoms at PCR-testing and 3 months later.
https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-798316/v1

Interesting paragraph:
Three months after the SARS-CoV-2 test, the presence of physical symptoms was higher than at baseline in both groups; 66.5% of test-positives and 53.4% of test-negatives had any symptoms whilst 30.3% of test-positives and 16.2% of test-negatives had 3+ symptoms. The symptom profile did not vary by age: for both 11-15y and 16-17y the most common symptoms among test-positives were tiredness, headache and shortness of breath and, among test-negatives, tiredness, headache and the unspecified category of “other”. Again, the prevalence of tiredness and headache was consistently higher in the test positives, 39.0% and 23.2% versus 24.4% and 14.2% in negatives, respectively. Prevalence was higher for 16-17-year-olds; for example, 46.4% of test-positives reported being tired compared to 29.6% of test-negatives. When we reweighted the percentage of reported symptoms at baseline and at 3 months post-test, broadly similar patterns were observed to those reported above (Supplementary Table 2).
When we have a control group we see that some symptoms ( tiredness, headache and the unspecified category of “other”) are found in significant numbers of people who didn't get Covid.

Of course post-viral syndrome is real. But this suggests that some symptoms in some people may have a different cause (eg tiredness rather than loss of sense of smell).

ETA Twitter thread: https://twitter.com/apsmunro/status/143 ... 65827?s=20

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Re: Long Covid

Post by badger » Thu Sep 02, 2021 12:34 pm

Ed Yong, whose previous Atlantic articles have featured early on in this thread and elsewhere, goes long on Long Covid once more:

Fighting for Their Future

An interesting round up to lay people like me - but am sure much is already known to regular thread participants.

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Re: Long Covid

Post by lpm » Thu Sep 02, 2021 12:54 pm

Absolute genius. I wish I could write comedy as good as this.

https://twitter.com/TheFreds/status/143 ... eFTnA&s=19
What ever happened to that Trump guy, you know, the one who was president for a bit?

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Re: Long Covid

Post by jaap » Thu Sep 02, 2021 1:19 pm

lpm wrote:
Thu Sep 02, 2021 12:54 pm
Absolute genius. I wish I could write comedy as good as this.

https://twitter.com/TheFreds/status/143 ... eFTnA&s=19
It says the tweet is not available. Has it been deleted?

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Re: Long Covid

Post by Woodchopper » Thu Sep 02, 2021 3:44 pm

jaap wrote:
Thu Sep 02, 2021 1:19 pm
lpm wrote:
Thu Sep 02, 2021 12:54 pm
Absolute genius. I wish I could write comedy as good as this.

https://twitter.com/TheFreds/status/143 ... eFTnA&s=19
It says the tweet is not available. Has it been deleted?
Probably referred to here: https://twitter.com/thefreds/status/143 ... 67938?s=21

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Re: Long Covid

Post by jimbob » Thu Sep 02, 2021 5:52 pm

Woodchopper wrote:
Thu Sep 02, 2021 3:44 pm
jaap wrote:
Thu Sep 02, 2021 1:19 pm
lpm wrote:
Thu Sep 02, 2021 12:54 pm
Absolute genius. I wish I could write comedy as good as this.

https://twitter.com/TheFreds/status/143 ... eFTnA&s=19
It says the tweet is not available. Has it been deleted?
Probably referred to here: https://twitter.com/thefreds/status/143 ... 67938?s=21
I liked this reply.

https://twitter.com/ParkinJim/status/14 ... 90048?s=20

Richard Fairbrass seems like a nasty (and utterly deluded) piece of work.

He's now denying having gone to hospital at all. Despite having tweeted that he did.
Have you considered stupidity as an explanation

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Re: Long Covid

Post by OffTheRock » Fri Sep 03, 2021 9:24 am

Woodchopper wrote:
Thu Sep 02, 2021 11:38 am
Introduction: We describe post-COVID symptomatology in a national sample of 11-17-year-old children and young people (CYP) with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to test-negative controls.

Methods and analysis: A cohort study of test-positive (n=3,065) and age-, sex- and geographically-matched test-negative CYP (n=3,739) completed detailed questionnaires 3 months post-test.

Results: At PCR-testing, 35.4% of test-positives and 8.3% of test-negatives had any symptoms whilst 30.6% and 6.2%, respectively, had 3+ symptoms. At 3 months post-testing, 66.5% of test-positives and 53.3% of test-negatives had any symptoms, whilst 30.3% and 16.2%, respectively, had 3+ symptoms. Latent class analysis identified two classes, characterised by “few” or “multiple” symptoms. This latter class was more frequent among test-positives, females, older CYP and those with worse pre-test physical and mental health.

Discussion: Test-positive CYP had a similar symptom profile to test-negative CYP but with higher prevalence of single and, particularly, multiple symptoms at PCR-testing and 3 months later.
https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-798316/v1

Interesting paragraph:
Three months after the SARS-CoV-2 test, the presence of physical symptoms was higher than at baseline in both groups; 66.5% of test-positives and 53.4% of test-negatives had any symptoms whilst 30.3% of test-positives and 16.2% of test-negatives had 3+ symptoms. The symptom profile did not vary by age: for both 11-15y and 16-17y the most common symptoms among test-positives were tiredness, headache and shortness of breath and, among test-negatives, tiredness, headache and the unspecified category of “other”. Again, the prevalence of tiredness and headache was consistently higher in the test positives, 39.0% and 23.2% versus 24.4% and 14.2% in negatives, respectively. Prevalence was higher for 16-17-year-olds; for example, 46.4% of test-positives reported being tired compared to 29.6% of test-negatives. When we reweighted the percentage of reported symptoms at baseline and at 3 months post-test, broadly similar patterns were observed to those reported above (Supplementary Table 2).
When we have a control group we see that some symptoms ( tiredness, headache and the unspecified category of “other”) are found in significant numbers of people who didn't get Covid.

Of course post-viral syndrome is real. But this suggests that some symptoms in some people may have a different cause (eg tiredness rather than loss of sense of smell).

ETA Twitter thread: https://twitter.com/apsmunro/status/143 ... 65827?s=20
Tbf, tiredness on it’s own is a fairly unhelpful symptom descriptor. It really does need quantifying in some way because there’s a difference between a normal levels of tiredness and the tiredness that effects your ability to carry out day to day activities.

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Re: Long Covid

Post by Woodchopper » Sun Sep 05, 2021 2:56 am

Kidney Outcomes in Long COVID

Abstract

Background: COVID-19 is associated with increased risk of post-acute sequelae involving pulmonary and extrapulmonary organ systems — referred to as long COVID. However, a detailed assessment of kidney outcomes in long COVID is not yet available.

Methods: We built a cohort of 1,726,683 US Veterans identified from March 01, 2020 to March 15, 2021 including 89,216 30-day COVID-19 survivors and 1,637,467 non-infected controls. We examined risks of AKI, eGFR decline, ESKD, and major adverse kidney events (MAKE) defined as eGFR decline ≥50%, ESKD, or all-cause mortality using inverse probability weighted survival regressions, adjusting for predefined demographic and health characteristics, and algorithmically selected high-dimensional covariates including diagnoses, medications, and laboratory tests. Linear mixed models characterized intra-individual eGFR trajectory.

Results: Beyond the acute illness, 30-day survivors of COVID-19 exhibited a higher risk of AKI (aHR=1.94 (95%CI: 1.86,2.04)), eGFR decline ≥30% (1.25 (1.14,1.37)), eGFR decline ≥40% (1.44 (1.37,1.51)), eGFR decline ≥50% (1.62 (1.51,1.74)), ESKD (2.96 (2.49-3.51)), and MAKE (1.66 (1.58,1.74)). There was a graded increase in risks of post-acute kidney outcomes according to the severity of the acute infection (whether patients were non-hospitalized, hospitalized, or admitted to intensive care). Compared to non-infected controls, 30-day COVID-19 survivors exhibited excess eGFR decline of -3.26 (-3.58, -2.94), -5.20 (-6.24, -4.16), and -7.69 (-8.27, -7.12) mL/min/1.73m2/year in non-hospitalized, hospitalized, and those admitted to intensive care during the acute phase of COVID-19 infection.

Conclusions: COVID-19 survivors exhibited increased risk of kidney outcomes in the post-acute phase of the disease. Post-acute COVID-19 care should involve attention to kidney disease.
https://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/ea ... 2021060734


Between one and six months after becoming infected, Covid survivors were about 35 percent more likely than non-Covid patients to have kidney damage or substantial declines in kidney function, said Dr. Ziyad Al-Aly, chief of the research and development service at the V.A. St. Louis Health Care System and senior author of the study.

[…]

Healthy adults gradually lose kidney function over time, about 1 percent or less a year, starting in their 30s or 40s, Dr. Wilson said. Serious illnesses and infections can cause more profound or permanent loss of function that may lead to chronic kidney disease or end-stage kidney disease.

The new study found that 4,757 Covid survivors had lost at least 30 percent of kidney function in the year after their infection, Dr. Al-Aly said.

That is equivalent to roughly “30 years of kidney function decline,” Dr. Wilson said.

Covid patients were 25 percent more likely to reach that level of decline than people who had not had the illness, the study found.

Smaller numbers of Covid survivors had steeper declines. But Covid patients were 44 percent more likely than non-Covid patients to lose at least 40 percent of kidney function and 62 percent more likely to lose at least 50 percent.

End-stage kidney disease, which occurs when at least 85 percent of kidney function is lost, was detected in 220 Covid patients, Dr. Al-Aly said. Covid survivors were nearly three times as likely to receive the diagnosis as patients without Covid, the study found.
Dr. Al-Aly and his colleagues also looked at a type of sudden renal failure called acute kidney injury, which other studies have found in up to half of hospitalized Covid patients. The condition can heal without causing long-term loss of kidney function.

But the V.A. study found that months after their infection, 2,812 Covid survivors suffered acute kidney injury, nearly twice the rate in non-Covid patients, Dr. Al-Aly said.

Dr. Wilson said the new data supported results of a study of 1,612 patients that he and colleagues conducted that found that Covid patients with acute kidney injury had significantly worse kidney function in the months after leaving the hospital than people with acute kidney injuries from other medical conditions.

In the new study, researchers did not directly compare Covid survivors with people infected with other viruses, like the flu, making it hard to know “are you really any sicker than if you just had another bad infection,” Dr. Sperati said.

In a previous study by Dr. Al-Aly’s team, however, which looked at many post-Covid health issues, including kidney problems, people hospitalized with Covid-19 were at significantly greater risk of developing long-term health problems in virtually every medical category, including cardiovascular, metabolic and gastrointestinal conditions, than were people hospitalized with the flu.

Every type of kidney impairment measured in the new study was much more common in Covid patients who were sicker initially — those in intensive care or who experienced acute kidney injury in the hospital.

People who were less ill during their Covid hospitalization were less likely to have lingering kidney problems, but still considerably more likely than non-Covid patients.
“People who are at highest risk are the people who really had it bad to start with,” Dr. Al-Aly said. “But really, no one is spared the risk.”

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/09/01/heal ... amage.html

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Re: Long Covid

Post by Woodchopper » Thu Sep 16, 2021 7:56 pm

Technical article: Updated estimates of the prevalence of post-acute symptoms among people with coronavirus (COVID-19) in the UK: 26 April 2020 to 1 August 2021

Experimental estimates from three approaches to estimating the percentage of people testing positive for coronavirus (COVID-19) and who experience symptoms four or more weeks after infection, broken down by demographic and viral characteristics, using UK Coronavirus Infection Survey data.
https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulation ... august2021

Thread summarizing the report: https://twitter.com/apsmunro/status/143 ... 46405?s=21

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Re: Long Covid

Post by raven » Thu Sep 16, 2021 10:34 pm

Cheers for that, Woodchopper. Those stats seem quite reassuring.

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Re: Long Covid

Post by shpalman » Wed Sep 29, 2021 8:03 am

Covid can infect cells in pancreas that make insulin
Covid-19 can infect insulin-producing cells in the pancreas and change their function, potentially explaining why some previously healthy people develop diabetes after catching the virus.
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Re: Long Covid

Post by raven » Wed Sep 29, 2021 2:53 pm

That's an interesting article.

Looking for the silver lining, maybe Covid will give us more insight into diabetes. If it can cause diabetes in people who weren't diabetic before, are some cases of type1 diabetes, particularly those emerging in later life, caused by viral infections? Also if some Covid patients who already had type1 diabetes start showing features of type 2 (ie. insulin resistance), that might indicate some role for inflammation in type 2 diabetes. And if some Covid patients get disordered glucose metabolism in ICU and then recover, I wonder if that's a similar mechanism to gestational diabetes, which tends to sort itself out after pregnancy.

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Re: Long Covid

Post by shpalman » Wed Sep 29, 2021 2:55 pm

Covid: 37% of people have symptoms six months after infection
Researchers at the University of Oxford, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and the Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) have shed fresh light on the scale of the problem after studying more than 270,000 people recovering from coronavirus in the US.

They found 37% of patients had at least one long Covid symptom diagnosed three to six months after infection. The most common symptoms were breathing problems, abdominal symptoms, fatigue, pain and anxiety or depression.
molto tricky

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Re: Long Covid

Post by raven » Wed Sep 29, 2021 4:09 pm

I'd like to know how many had multiple symptoms, and how many had symptoms that impact daily activities. It's those kind of outcomes that worry me.

I mean, I had a bad chest infection 3 winters ago. It took me a good 2 months to stop coughing, 3 to feel completely back to normal, and the following year I got a tight chest every time I went out in cold air. So technically, that's one symptom that lasted over 6months post-infection, but it wasn't something I'd label 'long' anything. (Except perhaps long stupidity; I should've gone to the GPs and got antibiotics...)

OTOH, I've seen people with long covid interviewed on TV who are still struggling to talk because of breathlessness, or can't walk more than a short distance without pain. So some kind of indication of severity level to go with that 37% statistic would be helpful.

ETA: Also, while the headline says 37% have symptoms after 6 months, the article gives this quote: "Over half of patients (57%) had at least one long Covid feature recorded in the six months after infection and one-third (37%) in the 90 to 180 days after diagnosis" which is a little different.

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Re: Long Covid

Post by shpalman » Wed Sep 29, 2021 4:52 pm

Incidence, co-occurrence, and evolution of long-COVID features: A 6-month retrospective cohort study of 273,618 survivors of COVID-19

Maxime Taquet, Quentin Dercon, Sierra Luciano, John R. Geddes, Masud Husain, Paul J. Harrison

PLOS Medicine 18(9): e1003773. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003773
molto tricky

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Re: Long Covid

Post by Bird on a Fire » Wed Sep 29, 2021 4:58 pm

Yeah, I'm still pretty keen not to join the covid club, tbh. Not sure how inevitable it'll turn out to be, especially as I'm meant to be visiting my UK university in December...
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Re: Long Covid

Post by IvanV » Thu Sep 30, 2021 1:59 pm

Woodchopper wrote:
Thu Aug 19, 2021 6:15 pm
Persistent Endotheliopathy in the Pathogenesis of Long COVID Syndrome
Can someone please explain the word "endotheliopathy" please, using less terminology than I come up against when I try to find out for myself?

Whilst I have a lot of science and natural history, I never had a formal lesson in biology in my life. So my knowledge of anatomy, basic biological processes, and anatomical/biological terminology is poor.

Google says "endothelial dysfunction", but that much I can work out for myself. There is a Wikipedia article on endothelium, but there are five pieces of terminology in the first two sentences I don't know the meaning of - squamous, endothelial cells, lymphatic vessels, lymph and lumen. So it might take a very long time for me to translate this into vocab I know.

Or maybe it is impossible for me to understand without learning about all these terms, in which case that would be useful to know, and maybe I will do the hard work at some point.

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Re: Long Covid

Post by Gfamily » Thu Sep 30, 2021 2:21 pm

Does this help?

http://www.learnpicu.com/endotheliopathy

As I understand it, the endothelium is the lining of the blood vessels, and I think that endotheliopathy is thus a disorder of that lining.
Given the multiple activity of the endothelium, the disorders can express in multiple ways.
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Re: Long Covid

Post by bagpuss » Thu Sep 30, 2021 2:34 pm

IvanV wrote:
Thu Sep 30, 2021 1:59 pm
Woodchopper wrote:
Thu Aug 19, 2021 6:15 pm
Persistent Endotheliopathy in the Pathogenesis of Long COVID Syndrome
Can someone please explain the word "endotheliopathy" please, using less terminology than I come up against when I try to find out for myself?

Whilst I have a lot of science and natural history, I never had a formal lesson in biology in my life. So my knowledge of anatomy, basic biological processes, and anatomical/biological terminology is poor.

Google says "endothelial dysfunction", but that much I can work out for myself. There is a Wikipedia article on endothelium, but there are five pieces of terminology in the first two sentences I don't know the meaning of - squamous, endothelial cells, lymphatic vessels, lymph and lumen. So it might take a very long time for me to translate this into vocab I know.

Or maybe it is impossible for me to understand without learning about all these terms, in which case that would be useful to know, and maybe I will do the hard work at some point.
I'm similarly under-educated in biology but I've found that the best way to make sense of unknown biological terms is to search specifically for images rather than all pages. I've just been doing exactly that on bits of ankle so it was the first thing I did when I read your post. If you do that for both endotheliopathy and endothelial cells, you'll find a whole host of diagrams, many specifically relating to COVID-19 as well, which should at least help make sense of all the words in the Wiki article, if not actually explain the whole thing.

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