Ionic horse blankets - kindly debunk?

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Tessa K
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Re: Ionic horse blankets - kindly debunk?

Post by Tessa K » Wed Apr 21, 2021 10:49 am

I just got a reply from the manufacturers. I don't have the science to dissect this but maybe someone here does.
Tourmaline is a crystalline boron silicate mineral that occurs in granitic and other rocks. It is an effective Bio-ceramic meaning it has the ability to emit electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared region as well as negative ions. Tourmaline is widely used in chemical products, environmental protection and in the health field.(Zhenfeng H & Chuanyao S. 2016).

The molecular formula of tourmaline is Na(Mg,Fe,Mn,Li,Al)3Al6[Si6O18]•[BO3]3(OH,F)4. Tourmaline contains trace elements such as: V Cr Zr Mn Ti Sr and Ga.

Tourmaline is produced in granite pegmatite or high temperature
gas hydrothermal minerals and occurs in prismatic form. It has the characteristics of infrared emission, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and spontaneous polarisation. Piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity increase as the fineness and the specific surface area of the tourmaline powder increase. (Zhenfeng H & Chuanyao S. 2016).
Pyroelectricity is defined as the ability of certain materials to generate a temporary voltage when they are heated or cooled, whereas Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials in response to applied mechanical stress.

When you apply tourmaline powder with a maximum particle size less than 3μm to a fibre, you produce an anion fibre which has the ability to emit negative ions and far-infrared radiation(FIR) when added to clothing. (Zhenfeng H & Chuanyao S. 2016).

Tourmaline will emit electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared region, wavelength 4-14 microns. (Niwa, Y., Iizawa, O., Ishimoto, K., 1993). This matches the absorption spectrum of the human body. (Zhenfeng H & Chuanyao S. 2016).
Far Infrared Rays are invisible waves of energy that are not only absorbed by the human body but it is also emitted by the body in the form of black body radiation (Vatansever, F., & Hamblin, M. R. 2012)

Far Infrared Therapy is described as a hyperthermic therapy that is perceived as heat by the thermo receptors on the skin and can penetrate up to 4cm beneath the skin. (Yoon, J. Y., Park, J. H., Lee, 2020). This induces molecular vibrations leading to increased temperatures inside the cells. (Tsai, S. R., & Hamblin, M. R. 2017)

At a cellular level, the mechanism of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with living cells alters cell membrane and mitochondrial metabolism. (Nunes, R., Cidral-Filho 2020) It therefore has the ability to increase the speed of blood flow, improve microcirculation, and as a result, improve body immunity. Far Infrared therapy is used in Chinese medicine for the treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. (Zhenfeng H & Chuanyao S. 2016). This is due to antioxidant activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and increased alkaline phosphatase activity, which can contribute to relieving inflammation in patients with arthritis. (Leung, T. K., Chen, C 2012)

Far Infrared therapy is seen as useful mono therapy for lymphedema and an alternative to the conservative or surgical lymphedema procedures.. (Li, K., Zhang, Z.,2017).

The principle source of energy needed to power the FIR emission from the garments comes from the human body, since it is at a significantly higher temperature than the surrounding air. Energy from the human body is transferred to these ceramic particles, which are acting as absorbers. They maintain their temperature at sufficiently high levels and then emit Far Infra Red back to the body. (Vatansever, F., & Hamblin, M. R. 2012).

It was discovered that exercising with a far-infrared clothes is associated with an improvement in exercise performance and a delay in anaerobic metabolism. It is suggested that these effects could be mediated by an increase in oxygen peripheral delivery secondary to muscular vasodilation. (Mantegazza, V., Contini, M P., 2018).
Far infrared clothing has also been found to be beneficial for recovery post exercise. (Loturco, I., Abad, C., Nakamura, F. Y.,2016) especially on perceptual markers during the early phases of an intensive training period.
(Nunes & Cidral-Filho 2020). Far Infrared impregnated gloves were found to significantly increase blood flow on people suffering from Raynaud's syndrome which is a disease that compromises blood flow to the hands. (Ko, G. D., & Berbrayer, D. 2002).


Anion textiles meaning they emit a negative ion charge , consist of polyester fibres containing tourmaline powder. They radiate far-infrared rays and have been found to emit negative ions using a Com-3010pro ion tester (Com System, Inc., Tokyo, Japan). Beneficial psychological and physiological effects from exposure to far-infrared rays and negative ions have been reported in humans, including sleep enhancement, increased growth, the potentiation of peripheral blood flow and body temperature, autonomic nervous system control, the inhibition of obesity, and bacteriolysis (Kim, S. H., Hwang, S. H.2012)

The ionic garments by Horseware are made using a polyester fabric that is infused with Tourmaline powder, emitting over 1000 negative ions per cubic cm.

References

Kaijun Z, Qingshan L, Wei H, Yu W. (2016)Research Progress in Anion Functional Fiber and Textile. Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 4, No. 6, pp. 494-499. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20160406.23

Ko, G. D., & Berbrayer, D. (2002). Effect of ceramic-impregnated "thermoflow" gloves on patients with Raynaud's syndrome: randomized, placebo-controlled study. Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic, 7(4), 328–335.

Kim, S. H., Hwang, S. H., Hong, S. K., Seo, J. K., Sung, H. S., Park, S. W., & Shin, J. H. (2012). The clinical efficacy, safety and functionality of anion textile in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Annals of dermatology, 24(4), 438–443. https://doi.org/10.5021/ad.2012.24.4.438


Leung, T. K., Chen, C. H., Lai, C. H., Lee, C. M., Chen, C. C., Yang, J. C., Chen, K. C., & Chao, J. S. (2012). Bone and joint protection ability of ceramic material with biological effects. The Chinese journal of physiology, 55(1), 47–54. https://doi.org/10.4077/CJP.2012.AMM113

Loturco, I., Abad, C., Nakamura, F. Y., Ramos, S. P., Kobal, R., Gil, S., Pereira, L. A., Burini, F., Roschel, H., Ugrinowitsch, C., & Tricoli, V. (2016). Effects of far infrared rays emitting clothing on recovery after an intense plyometric exercise bout applied to elite soccer players: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Biology of sport, 33(3), 277–283. https://doi.org/10.5604/20831862.1208479

Li, K., Zhang, Z., Liu, N. F., Feng, S. Q., Tong, Y., Zhang, J. F., Constantinides, J., Lazzeri, D., Grassetti, L., Nicoli, F., & Zhang, Y. X. (2017). Efficacy and safety of far infrared radiation in lymphedema treatment: clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis. Lasers in medical science, 32(3), 485–494.

Mantegazza, V., Contini, M., Botti, M., Ferri, A., Dotti, F., Berardi, P., & Agostoni, P. (2018). Improvement in exercise capacity and delayed anaerobic metabolism induced by far-infrared-emitting garments in active healthy subjects: A pilot study. European journal of preventive cardiology, 25(16), 1744–1751. https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487318768598
Niwa, Y., Iizawa, O., Ishimoto, K., Jiang, X., & Kanoh, T. (1993). Electromagnetic wave emitting products and "Kikoh" potentiate human leukocyte functions. International journal of biometeorology, 37(3), 133–138. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01212622

Nunes, R., Cidral-Filho, F. J., Flores, L., Nakamura, F. Y., Rodriguez, H., Bobinski, F., De Sousa, A., Petronilho, F., Danielski, L. G., Martins, M. M., Martins, D. F., & Guglielmo, L. (2020). Effects of Far-Infrared Emitting Ceramic Materials on Recovery During 2-Week Preseason of Elite Futsal Players. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 34(1), 235–248. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002733

Tsai, S. R., & Hamblin, M. R. (2017). Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation. Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology, 170, 197–207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2017.04.014


Vatansever, F., & Hamblin, M. R. (2012). Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications. Photonics & lasers in medicine, 4, 255–266. https://doi.org/10.1515/plm-2012-0034

Yoon, J. Y., Park, J. H., Lee, K. J., Kim, H. S., Rhee, S. M., & Oh, J. H. (2020). The effect of postoperatively applied far-infrared radiation on pain and tendon-to-bone healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a clinical prospective randomized comparative study. The Korean journal of pain, 33(4), 344–351. https://doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2020.33.4.344

Zhenfeng H & Chuanyao, S. (2016). An Study on Preparation and Utilization of Tourmaline from Tailings of an Iron-ore Processing Plant. Procedia Environmental Sciences. 31. 153-161. 10.1016/j.proenv.2016.02.021.

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dyqik
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Re: Ionic horse blankets - kindly debunk?

Post by dyqik » Wed Apr 21, 2021 12:40 pm

Tourmaline will emit electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared region, wavelength 4-14 microns
The principle source of energy needed to power the FIR emission from the garments comes from the human body, since it is at a significantly higher temperature than the surrounding air. Energy from the human body is transferred to these ceramic particles, which are acting as absorbers. They maintain their temperature at sufficiently high levels and then emit Far Infra Red back to the body. (Vatansever, F., & Hamblin, M. R. 2012).
Not without a power source it won't. And it won't emit net power towards the heat source that's lifting it above ambient temperature.

The human/horse body is a fairly black body in the wavelength range given, so it'll be emitting power in the given wavelength range about the same as the power being emitted by the magic crystals.

An emissivity factor that reduces the amount of power emitted by the body in that wavelength range below the blackbody amount also reduces the absorption of incoming radiative power in that wavelength range, with the remainder being reflected.

I really don't want to have to dig into a radiative transfer model here though.

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Re: Ionic horse blankets - kindly debunk?

Post by dyqik » Wed Apr 21, 2021 12:58 pm

The basic version is that the high emissivity of the particles in the blanket in the IR wavelength range only matters if it actually makes the blanket more opaque in that wavelength range (similar to what CO2 does in the atmosphere on a clear day), with the blanket being transparent without the particles.

If the blanket is opaque anyway (and it will be if it's got any reasonable thickness, moisture content or if it scatters IR), then it's irrelevant.

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Re: Ionic horse blankets - kindly debunk?

Post by dyqik » Wed Apr 21, 2021 1:08 pm

BTW, there's a review of human skin emissivity measurements here.

At wavelengths >2.5µm, skin is a blackbody with emissivity >0.99% (reflectivity <1%). This means that the only effects a blanket heated by the skin can have in the thermal IR is to reduce emitted power to the environment, not to increase power above that emitted by the skin.

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